Monday, 12 December 2011


A stenotype, stenotype apparatus or autograph apparatus is a specialized chorded keyboard or typewriter acclimated by stenographers for autograph use. In adjustment to canyon the US Registered Professional Anchorman test, a accomplished cloister anchorman or bankrupt captioner allegation address speeds of about 180, 200, and 225 words per minute at absolute aerial accurateness in the categories of literary, board charge, and testimony, respectively.1 Some users of this apparatus can ability 300 words per minute. The website of the California Official Cloister Reporters Association gives the official almanac for American English as 375 wpm.

The stenotype keyboard looks added like a piano than a accepted alphanumeric keyboard.dubious – discuss Multiple keys are apprenticed accompanying (known as "chording" or "stroking") to spell out accomplished syllables, words, and phrases with a distinct duke motion. This arrangement makes realtime archetype activated for cloister advertisement and alive bankrupt captioning. Because the keyboard does not accommodate all the belletrist of the English alphabet, letter combinations are commissioned for the missing letters. There are several schools of anticipation on how to almanac assorted sounds, such as the StenEd, Phoenix, and Magnum Steno theories.

The aboriginal autograph apparatus (the chat "stenotype" was not acclimated for addition 80 years or more) punched a cardboard band and was congenital in 1830 by Karl Draiscitation needed. The aboriginal apparatus was fabricated in 1863 by the Italian Antonio Zucco and was in absolute use back 1880 in the Italian Senate. An American autograph apparatus was patented in 1879 by Miles M. Bartholomew. A French adaptation was created by Marc Grandjean in 1909. The absolute antecedent of today's stenotype was created by Ward Stone Ireland in about 1913 or so, and the chat "stenotype" was activated to his apparatus and its birth ancient thereafter.

Most avant-garde stenotype keyboards accept added in accepted with computers than they do with typewriters or QWERTY computer keyboards. Best accommodate microprocessors, and abounding acquiesce acuteness adjustments for anniversary alone key. They construe stenotype to English internally application user-specific dictionaries, and best accept LCD screens. They about abundance a abounding day's assignment in non-volatile anamnesis of some type, such as a billowing disk, adamantine drive, or non-volatile RAM. These factors access the price, forth with economies of scale, as there are alone a few thousand stenotype keyboards awash anniversary year. As of April 2008, apprentice models such as a Stentura 400SRT advertise for about US $1,500 and top-end models advertise for about US$ 5,000. Machines that are 30–40 years old still resell for upwards of $350

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