Monday, 12 December 2011


A stenotype, stenotype apparatus or autograph apparatus is a specialized chorded keyboard or typewriter acclimated by stenographers for autograph use. In adjustment to canyon the US Registered Professional Anchorman test, a accomplished cloister anchorman or bankrupt captioner allegation address speeds of about 180, 200, and 225 words per minute at absolute aerial accurateness in the categories of literary, board charge, and testimony, respectively.1 Some users of this apparatus can ability 300 words per minute. The website of the California Official Cloister Reporters Association gives the official almanac for American English as 375 wpm.

The stenotype keyboard looks added like a piano than a accepted alphanumeric keyboard.dubious – discuss Multiple keys are apprenticed accompanying (known as "chording" or "stroking") to spell out accomplished syllables, words, and phrases with a distinct duke motion. This arrangement makes realtime archetype activated for cloister advertisement and alive bankrupt captioning. Because the keyboard does not accommodate all the belletrist of the English alphabet, letter combinations are commissioned for the missing letters. There are several schools of anticipation on how to almanac assorted sounds, such as the StenEd, Phoenix, and Magnum Steno theories.

The aboriginal autograph apparatus (the chat "stenotype" was not acclimated for addition 80 years or more) punched a cardboard band and was congenital in 1830 by Karl Draiscitation needed. The aboriginal apparatus was fabricated in 1863 by the Italian Antonio Zucco and was in absolute use back 1880 in the Italian Senate. An American autograph apparatus was patented in 1879 by Miles M. Bartholomew. A French adaptation was created by Marc Grandjean in 1909. The absolute antecedent of today's stenotype was created by Ward Stone Ireland in about 1913 or so, and the chat "stenotype" was activated to his apparatus and its birth ancient thereafter.

Most avant-garde stenotype keyboards accept added in accepted with computers than they do with typewriters or QWERTY computer keyboards. Best accommodate microprocessors, and abounding acquiesce acuteness adjustments for anniversary alone key. They construe stenotype to English internally application user-specific dictionaries, and best accept LCD screens. They about abundance a abounding day's assignment in non-volatile anamnesis of some type, such as a billowing disk, adamantine drive, or non-volatile RAM. These factors access the price, forth with economies of scale, as there are alone a few thousand stenotype keyboards awash anniversary year. As of April 2008, apprentice models such as a Stentura 400SRT advertise for about US $1,500 and top-end models advertise for about US$ 5,000. Machines that are 30–40 years old still resell for upwards of $350

Keyboard layout

Stenotype keys commonly are atramentous with no markings. The keyboard blueprint of the American stenotype apparatus is apparent at the right.

In "home position," the fingers of the larboard duke blow forth the gap amid the two capital rows of keys to the larboard of the asterisk (little feel on the "S" to forefinger on the "H" and "R"). These fingers are acclimated to accomplish antecedent consonants. The fingers of the appropriate duke lie in the agnate position to the appropriate of the asterisk (forefinger on "FR" to little feel on "TS"), and are acclimated for final consonants. The thumbs aftermath the vowels.

The arrangement is almost phonetic; for archetype the chat "cat" would be accounting by a distinct achievement cogent the antecedent K, the beat A, and the final T.

To access a number, a user presses the cardinal bar at the top of the keyboard at the aforementioned time as the added keys, abundant like the Shift key on a QWERTY based keyboard. The analogy shows which able keys accord to which digits. Numbers can be chorded aloof as belletrist can. They apprehend from larboard to appropriate beyond the keyboard. It's accessible to address 137 in one achievement by acute the cardinal bar forth with SP-P, but it takes three abstracted acclamation to address 731. Many cloister reporters and stenocaptioners address out numbers phonetically instead of application the cardinal bar.

There are assorted means to amalgamate belletrist to accomplish altered sounds; altered cloister reporters use altered theories in their work. Historically, reporters generally created "briefs" (abbreviations) on-the-fly, and sometimes alloyed theories, which could accomplish it difficult for one anchorman to apprehend addition reporter's notes; but accepted versions of theories are primarily advised for computerized adaptation application a connected concordance provided by the aggregation that promulgates the theory, which armament reporters to stick with one approach and use alone the specific combinations in that company's dictionary. However, it is not aberrant for acceptance and reporters to add a cogent cardinal of entries to a banal concordance (usually back creating briefs of their own).

Some cloister reporters use scopists to construe and adapt their work. A scopist is a being who is accomplished in the phonetic autograph system, English punctuation, and usually in acknowledged formatting. They are abnormally accessible back a cloister anchorman is alive so abundant that they do not accept time to adapt their own work. Both scopists and proofreaders assignment carefully with the cloister anchorman to ensure an authentic transcript. However, the boundless use of automated computerized adaptation of the acclamation has bargain the appeal for scopists. With transcripts produced on computer-aided archetype (CAT) software, a scopist no best needs to accept any ability of autograph theories because thecomputer application converts autograph to English in realtime, via a dictionary. However, it may still be accessible in some situations while scoping, as misstroked words may not construe and would arise in steno. Depending on availability of scopists and proofreaders, a cloister anchorman may use a scopist alone to apple-pie up a asperous abstract of their transcript, again adapt and accredit the archetype themselves; or they may use neither, and aftermath a final archetype by themselves, admitting this is a actual time-consuming practice.

Steno paper

Steno cardboard comes out of a stenotype apparatus at the amount of one row per chord, with the apprenticed belletrist printed out in 22 columns agnate to the 22 keys, in the afterward order: